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EMMA GOLDMAN, a revolutionary woman's life

Propagandism is not, as some suppose, a "trade," because nobody will follow a "trade" at which you may work with the industry of a slave and die with the reputation of a mendicant. The motives of any persons to pursue such a profession must be different from those of trade, deeper than pride, and stronger than interest. GE0RGE JACOB HOLYOAKE. AMONG the men and women prominent in the public life of America there are but few whose names are mentioned as often as that of Emma Goldman. Yet the real Emma Goldman is almost quite unknown. The sensational press has surrounded her name with so much misrepresentation and slander, it would seem almost a miracle that, in spite of this web of calumny, the truth breaks through and a better appreciation of this much maligned idealist begins to manifest itself. There is but little consolation in the fact that almost every representative of a new idea has had to struggle and suffer under similar difficulties. Is it of any avail that a former president of a republic pays homage at Osawatomie to the memory of John Brown? Or that the president of another republic participates in the unveiling of a statue in honor of Pierre Proudhon, and holds up his life to the French nation as a model worthy of enthusiastic emulation? Of what avail is all this when, at the same time, the living John Browns and Proudhons are being crucified? The honor and glory of a Mary Wollstonecraft or of a Louise Michel are not enhanced by the City Fathers of London or Paris naming a street after the--the living generation should be concerned with doing justice to the living Mary Wollstonecrafts and Louise Michels. Posterity assigns to men like Wendel Phillips and Lloyd Garrison the proper niche of honor in the temple of human emancipation; but it is the duty of their contemporaries to bring them due recognition and appreciation while they live. The path of the propagandist of social justice is strewn with thorns. The powers of darkness and injustice exert all their might lest a ray of sunshine enter his cheerless life. Nay, even his comrades in the struggle-- indeed, too often his most intimate friends--show but little understanding for the personality of the pioneer. Envy, sometimes growing to hatred, vanity and jealousy, obstruct his way and fill his heart with sadness. It requires an inflexible will and tremendous enthusiasm not to lose, under such conditions, all faith in the Cause. The representative of a revolutionizing idea stands between two fires: on the one hand, the persecution of the existing powers which hold him responsible for all acts resulting from social conditions; and, on the other, the lack of understanding on the part of his own followers who often judge all his activity from a narrow standpoint. Thus it happens that the agitator stands quite alone in the midst of the multitude surrounding him. Even his most intimate friends rarely understand how solitary and deserted he feels. That is the tragedy of the person prominent in the public eye. The mist in which the name of Emma Goldman has so long been enveloped is gradually beginning to dissipate. Her energy in the furtherance of such an unpopular idea as Anarchism, her deep earnestness, her courage and abilities, find growing understanding and admiration. The debt American intellectual growth owes to the revolutionary exiles has never been fully appreciated. The seed disseminated by them, though so little understood at the time, has brought a rich harvest. They have at all times held aloft the banner of liberty, thus impregnating the social vitality of the Nation. But very few have succeeded in preserving their European education and culture while at the same time assimilating themselves with American life. It is difficult for the average man to form an adequate conception what strength, energy, and perseverance are necessary to absorb the unfamiliar language, habits, and customs of a new country, without the loss of one's own personality. Emma Goldman is one of the few who, while thoroughly preserving their individuality, have become an important factor in the social and intellectual atmosphere of America. The life she leads is rich in color, full of change and variety. She has risen to the topmost heights, and she has also tasted the bitter dregs of life. Emma Goldman was born of Jewish parentage on the 27th day of June, 1869, in the Russian province of Kovno. Surely these parents never dreamed what unique position their child would some day occupy. Like all conservative parents they, too, were quite convinced that their daughter would marry a respectable citizen, bear him children, and round out her allotted years surrounded by a flock of grandchildren, a good, religious woman. As most parents, they had no inkling what a strange, impassioned spirit would take hold of the soul of their child, and carry it to the heights which separate generations in eternal struggle. They lived in a land and at a time when antagonism between parent and offspring was fated to find its most acute expression, irreconcilable hostility. In this tremendous struggle between fathers and sons --and especially between parents and daughters--there was no compromise, no weak yielding, no truce. The spirit of liberty, of progress--an idealism which knew no considerations and recognized no obstacles-- drove the young generation out of the parental house and away from the hearth of the home. Just as this same spirit once drove out the revolutionary breeder of discontent, Jesus, and alienated him from his native traditions. What rôle the Jewish race--notwithstanding all anti-Semitic calumnies the race of transcendental idealism--played in the struggle of the Old and the New will probably never be appreciated with complete impartiality and clarity. Only now we are beginning to perceive the tremendous debt we owe to Jewish idealists in the realm of science, art, and literature. But very little is still known of the important part the sons and daughters of Israel have played in the revolutionary movement and, especially, in that of modern times. The first years of her childhood Emma Goldman passed in a small, idyllic place in the German-Russian province of Kurland, where her father had charge of the government stage. At that time Kurland was thoroughly German; even the Russian bureaucracy of that Baltic province was recruited mostly from German Junker. German fairy tales and stories, rich in the miraculous deeds of the heroic knights of Kurland, wove their spell over the youthful mind. But the beautiful idyl was of short duration. Soon the soul of the growing child was overcast by the dark shadows of life. Already in her tenderest youth the seeds of rebellion and unrelenting hatred of oppression were to be planted in the heart of Emma Goldman. Early she learned to know the beauty of the State: she saw her father harassed by the Christian chinovniks and doubly persecuted as petty official and hated Jew. The brutality of forced conscription ever stood before her eyes: she beheld the young men, often the sole support of a large family, brutally dragged to the barracks to lead the miserable life of a soldier. She heard the weeping of the poor peasant women, and witnessed the shameful scenes of official venality which relieved the rich from military service at the expense of the poor. She was outraged by the terrible treatment to which the female servants were subjected: maltreated and exploited by their barinyas, they fell to the tender mercies of the regimental officers, who regarded them as their natural sexual prey. These girls, made pregnant by respectable gentlemen and driven out by their mistresses, often found refuge in the Goldman home. And the little girl, her heart palpitating with sympathy, would abstract coins from the parental drawer to clandestinely press the money into the hands of the unfortunate women. Thus Emma Goldman's most striking characteristic, her sympathy with the underdog, already became manifest in these early years. At the age of seven little Emma was sent by her parents to her grandmother at Königsberg, the city of Immanuel Kant, in Eastern Prussia. Save for occasional interruptions, she remained there till her 13th birthday. The first years in these surroundings do not exactly belong to her happiest recollections. The grandmother, indeed, was very amiable, but the numerous aunts of the household were concerned more with the spirit of practical rather than pure reason, and the categoric imperative was applied all too frequently. The situation was changed when her parents migrated to Königsberg, and little Emma was relieved from her rôle of Cinderella. She now regularly attended public school and also enjoyed the advantages of private instruction, customary in middle class life; French and music lessons played an important part in the curriculum. The future interpreter of Ibsen and Shaw was then a little German Gretchen, quite at home in the German atmosphere. Her special predilections in literature were the sentimental romances of Marlitt; she was a great admirer of the good Queen Louise, whom the bad Napoleon Buonaparte treated with so marked a lack of knightly chivalry. What might have been her future development had she remained in this milieu? Fate--or was it economic necessity?--willed it otherwise. Her parents decided to settle in St. Petersburg, the capital of the Almighty Tsar, and there to embark in business. It was here that a great change took place in the life of the young dreamer. It was an eventful period--the year of 1882--in which Emma Goldman, then in her 13th year, arrived in St. Petersburg. A struggle for life and death between the autocracy and the Russian intellectuals swept the country. Alexander II. had fallen the previous year. Sophia Perovskaia, Zheliabov, Grinevitzky, Rissakov, Kibalchitch, Michailov, the heroic executors of the death sentence upon the tyrant, had then entered the Walhalla of immortality. Jessie Helfman, the only regicide whose life the government had reluctantly spared because of pregnancy, followed the unnumbered Russian martyrs to the étapes of Siberia. It was the most heroic period in the great battle of emancipation, a battle for freedom such as the world had never witnessed before. The names of the Nihilist martyrs were on all lips, and thousands were enthusiastic to follow their example. The whole intelligensia of Russia was filled with the illegal spirit: revolutionary sentiments penetrated into every home, from mansion to hovel, impregnating the military, the chinovniks, factory workers, and peasants. The atmosphere pierced the very casemates of the royal palace. New ideas germinated in the youth. The difference of sex was forgotten. Shoulder to shoulder fought the men and the women. The Russian woman! Who shall ever do justice or adequately portray her heroism and self-sacrifice, her loyalty and devotion? Holy, Turgeniev calls her in his great prose poem, On the Threshold. It was inevitable that the young dreamer from Königsberg should be drawn into the maelstrom. To remain outside of the circle of free ideas meant a life of vegetation, of death. One need not wonder at the youthful age. Young enthusiasts were not then--and, fortunately, are not now--a rare phenomenon in Russia. The study of the Russian language soon brought young Emma Goldman in touch with revolutionary students and new ideas. The place of Marlitt was taken by Nekrassov and Tchernishevsky. The quondam admirer of the good Queen Louise became a glowing enthusiast of liberty, resolving, like thousands of others, to devote her life to the emancipation of the people. The struggle of generations now took place in the Goldman family. The parents could not comprehend what interest their daughter could find in the new ideas, which they themselves considered fantastic utopias. They strove to persuade the young girl out of these chimeras, and daily repetition of soul-racking disputes was the result. Only in one member of the family did the young idealist find understanding--in her elder sister, Helene, with whom she later emigrated to America, and whose love and sympathy have never failed her. Even in the darkest hours of later persecution Emma Goldman always found a haven of refuge in the home of this loyal sister. Emma Goldman finally resolved to achieve her independence. She saw hundreds of men and women sacrificing brilliant careers to go v naród, to the people. She followed their example. She became a factory worker; at first employed as a corset maker, and later in the manufacture of gloves. She was now 17 years of age and proud to earn her own living. Had she remained in Russia, she would have probably sooner or later shared the fate of thousands buried in the snows of Siberia. But a new chapter of life was to begin for her. Sister Helene decided to emigrate to America, where another sister had already made her home. Emma prevailed upon Helene to be allowed to join her, and together they departed for America, filled with the joyous hope of a great, free land, the glorious Republic. America! What magic word. The yearning of the enslaved, the promised land of the oppressed, the goal of all longing for progress. Here man's ideals had found their fulfillment: no Tsar, no Cossack, no chinovnik. The Republic! Glorious synonym of equality, freedom, brotherhood Thus thought the two girls as they travelled, in the year 1886, from New York to Rochester. Soon, all too soon, disillusionment awaited them. The ideal conception of America was punctured already at Castle Garden, and soon burst like a soap bubble. Here Emma Goldman witnessed sights which reminded her of the terrible scenes of her childhood in Kurland. The brutality and humiliation the future citizens of the great Republic were subjected to on board ship, were repeated at Castle Garden by the officials of the democracy in a more savage and aggravating manner. And what bitter disappointment followed as the young idealist began to familiarize herself with the conditions in the new land! Instead of one Tsar, she found scores of them; the Cossack was replaced by the policeman with the heavy club, and instead of the Russian chinovnik there was the far more inhuman slave driver of the factory. Emma Goldman soon obtained work in the clothing establishment of the Garson Co. The wages amounted to two and a half dollars a week. At that time the factories were not provided with motor power, and the poor sewing girls had to drive the wheels by foot, from early morning till late at night. A terribly exhausting toil it was, without a ray of light, the drudgery of the long day passed in complete silence--the Russian custom of friendly conversation at work was not permissible in the free country. But the exploitation of the girls was not only economic; the poor wage workers were looked upon by their foremen and bosses as sexual commodities. If a girl resented the advances of her superiors," she would speedily find herself on the street as an undesirable element in the factory. There was never a lack of willing victims: the supply always exceeded the demand. The horrible conditions were made still more unbearable by the fearful dreariness of life in the small American city. The Puritan spirit suppresses the slightest manifestation of joy; a deadly dullness beclouds the soul; no intellectual inspiration, no thought exchange between congenial spirits is possible. Emma Goldman almost suffocated in this atmosphere. She, above all others, longed for ideal surroundings, for friendship and understanding, for the companionship of kindred minds. Mentally she still lived in Russia. Unfamiliar with the language and life of the country, she dwelt more in the past than in the present. It was at this period that she met a young man who spoke Russian. With great joy the acquaintance was cultivated. At last a person with whom she could converse, one who could help her bridge the dullness of the narrow existence. The friendship gradually ripened and finally culminated in marriage. Emma Goldman, too, had to walk the sorrowful road of married life; she, too, had to learn from bitter experience that legal statutes signify dependence and self-effacement, especially for the woman. The marriage was no liberation from the Puritan dreariness of American life; indeed, it was rather aggravated by the loss of self-ownership. The characters of the young people differed too widely. A separation soon followed, and Emma Goldman went to New Haven, Conn. There she found employment in a factory, and her husband disappeared from her horizon. Two decades later she was fated to be unexpectedly reminded of him by the Federal authorities. The revolutionists who were active in the Russian movement of the 80's were but little familiar with the social ideas then agitating western Europe and America. Their sole activity consisted in educating the people, their final goal the destruction of the autocracy. Socialism and Anarchism were terms hardly known even by name. Emma Goldman, too, was entirely unfamiliar with the significance of those ideals. She arrived in America, as four years previously in Russia, at a period of great social and political unrest. The working people were in revolt against the terrible labor conditions; the eight-hour movement of the Knights of Labor was at its height, and throughout the country echoed the din of sanguine strife between strikers and police. The struggle culminated in the great strike against the Harvester Company of Chicago, the massacre of the strikers, and the judicial murder of the labor leaders, which followed upon the historic Haymarket bomb explosion. The Anarchists stood the martyr test of blood baptism. The apologists of capitalism vainly seek to justify the killing of Parsons, Spies, Lingg, Fischer, and Engel. Since the publication of Governor Altgeld's reasons for his liberation of the three incarcerated Haymarket Anarchists, no doubt is left that a fivefold legal murder had been committed in Chicago, in 1887. Very few have grasped the significance of the Chicago martyrdom; least of all the ruling classes. By the destruction of a number of labor leaders they thought to stem the tide of a world-inspiring idea. They failed to consider that from the blood of the martyrs grows the new seed, and that the frightful injustice will win new converts to the Cause. The two most prominent representatives of the Anarchist idea in America, Voltairine de Cleyre and Emma Goldman--the one a native American, the other a Russian--have been converted, like numerous others, to the ideas of Anarchism by the judicial murder. Two women who had not known each other before, and who had received a widely different education, were through that murder united in one idea. Like most working men and women of America, Emma Goldman followed the Chicago trial with great anxiety and excitement. She, too, could not believe that the leaders of the proletariat would be killed. The 11th of November, 1887, taught her differently. She realized that no mercy could be expected from the ruling class, that between the Tsarism of Russia and the plutocracy of America there was no difference save in name. Her whole being rebelled against the crime, and she vowed to herself a solemn vow to join the ranks of the revolutionary proletariat and to devote all her energy and strength to their emancipation from wage slavery. With the glowing enthusiasm so characteristic of her nature, she now began to familiarize herself with the literature of Socialism and Anarchism. She attended public meetings and became acquainted with socialistically and anarchistically inclined working men. Johanna Greie, the well-known German lecturer, was the first Socialist speaker heard by Emma Goldman. In New Haven, Conn., where she was employed in a corset factory, she met Anarchists actively participating in the movement. Here she read the Freiheit, edited by John Most. The Haymarket tragedy developed her inherent Anarchist tendencies; the reading of the Freiheit made her a conscious Anarchist. Subsequently she was to learn that the idea of Anarchism found its highest expression through the best intellects of America: theoretically by Josiah Warren, Stephen Pearl Andrews Lysander Spooner; philosophically by Emerson, Thoreau, and Walt Whitman. Made ill by the excessive strain of factory work, Emma Goldman returned to Rochester where she remained till August, 1889, at which time she removed to New York, the scene of the most important phase of her life. She was now twenty years old. Features pallid with suffering, eyes large and full of compassion, greet one in her pictured likeness of those days. Her hair is, as customary with Russian student girls, worn short, giving free play to the strong forehead. It is the heroic epoch of militant Anarchism. By leaps and bounds the movement had grown in every country. In spite of the most severe govern mental persecution new converts swell the ranks. The propaganda is almost exclusively of a secret character. The repressive measures of the government drive the disciples of the new philosophy to conspirative methods. Thousands of victims fall into the hands of the authorities and languish in prisons. But nothing can stem the rising tide of enthusiasm, of self-sacrifice and devotion to the Cause. The efforts of teachers like Peter Kropotkin, Louise Michel, Elisée Reclus, and others, inspire the devotees with ever greater energy. Disruption is imminent with the Socialists, who have sacrificed the idea of liberty and embraced the State and politics. The struggle is bitter, the factions irreconcilable. This struggle is not merely between Anarchists and Socialists; it also finds its echo within the Anarchist groups. Theoretic differences and personal controversies lead to strife and acrimonious enmities. The anti-Socialist legislation of Germany and Austria had driven thousands of Socialists and Anarchists across the seas to seek refuge in America. John Most, having lost his seat in the Reichstag, finally had to flee his native land, and went to London. There, having advanced toward Anarchism, he entirely withdrew from the Social Democratic Party. Later, coming to America, he continued the publication of the Freiheit in New York, and developed great activity among the German workingmen. When Emma Goldman arrived in New York in 1889, she experienced little difficulty in associating herself with active Anarchists. Anarchist meetings were an almost daily occurrence. The first lecturer she heard on the Anarchist platform was Dr. H. Solotaroff. Of great importance to her future development was her acquaintance with John Most, who exerted a tremendous influence over the younger elements. His impassioned eloquence, untiring energy, and the persecution he had endured for the Cause, all combined to enthuse the comrades. It was also at this period that she met Alexander Berkman, whose friendship played an important part through out her life. Her talents as a speaker could not long remain in obscurity. The fire of enthusiasm swept her toward the public platform. Encouraged by her friends, she began to participate as a German and Yiddish speaker at Anarchist meetings. Soon followed a brief tour of agitation taking her as far as Cleveland. With the whole strength and earnestness of her soul she now threw herself into the propaganda of Anarchist ideas. The passionate period of her life had begun. Though constantly toiling in sweat-shops, the fiery young orator was at the same time very active as an agitator and participated in various labor struggles, notably in the great cloakmakers' strike, in 1889, led by Professor Garsyde and Joseph Barondess. A year later Emma Goldman was a delegate to an Anarchist conference in New York. She was elected to the Executive Committee, but later with drew because of differences of opinion regarding tactical matters. The ideas of the German-speaking Anarchists had at that time not yet become clarified. Some still believed in parliamentary methods, the great majority being adherents of strong centralism. These differences of opinion in regard to tactics led, in 1891, to a breach with John Most. Emma Goldman, Alexander Berkman, and other comrades joined the group Autonomy, in which Joseph Peukert, Otto Rinke, and Claus Timmermann played an active part. The bitter controversies which followed this secession terminated only with the death of Most, in 1906. A great source of inspiration to Emma Goldman proved the Russian revolutionists who were associated in the group Znamya. Goldenberg, Solotaroff, Zametkin, Miller, Cahan, the poet Edelstadt, Ivan von Schewitsch, husband of Helene von Racowitza and editor of the Volkszeitung, and numerous other Russian exiles, some of whom are still living, were members of the group. It was also at this time that Emma Goldman met Robert Reitzel, the German American Heine, who exerted a great influence on her development. Through him she became acquainted with the best writers of modern literature, and the friendship thus begun lasted. till Reitzel's death, in 1898. The labor movement of America had not been drowned in the Chicago massacre; the murder of the Anarchists had failed to bring peace to the profit-greedy capitalist. The struggle for the eight hour day continued. In 1892 broke out the great strike in Pittsburg. The Homestead fight, the defeat of the Pinkertons, the appearance of the militia, the suppression of the strikers, and the complete triumph of the reaction are matters of comparatively recent history. Stirred to the very depths by the terrible events at the seat of war, Alexander Berkman resolved to sacrifice his life to the Cause and thus give an object lesson to the wage slaves of America of active Anarchist solidarity with labor. His attack upon Frick, the Gessler of Pittsburg, failed, and the twenty-two-year-old youth was doomed to a living death of twenty-two years in the penitentiary. The bourgeoisie, which for decades had exalted and eulogized tyrannicide, now was filled with terrible rage. The capitalist press organized a systematic campaign of calumny and misrepresentation against Anarchists. The police exerted every effort to involve Emma Goldman in the act of Alexander Berkman. The feared agitator was to be silenced by all means. It was only due to the circumstance of her presence in New York that she escaped the clutches of the law. It was a similar circumstance which, nine years later, during the McKinley incident, was instrumental in preserving her liberty. It is almost incredible with what amount of stupidity, baseness, and vileness the journalists of the period sought to overwhelm the Anarchist. One must peruse the newspaper files to realize the enormity of incrimination and slander. It would be difficult to portray the agony of soul Emma Goldman experienced in those days. The persecutions of the capitalist press were to be borne by an Anarchist with comparative equanimity; but the attacks from one's own ranks were far more painful and unbearable. The act of Berkman was severely criticized by Most and some of his followers among the German and Jewish Anarchists. Bitter accusations and recriminations at public meetings and private gatherings followed. Persecuted on all sides, both because she championed Berkman and his act, and on account of her revolutionary activity, Emma Goldman was harassed even to the extent of inability to secure shelter. Too proud to seek safety in the denial of her identity, she chose to pass the nights in the public parks rather than expose her friends to danger or vexation by her visits. The already bitter cup was filled to overflowing by the attempted suicide of a young comrade who had shared living quarters with Emma Goldman, Alexander Berkman, and a mutual artist friend. Many changes have since taken place. Alexander Berkman has survived the Pennsylvania Inferno, and is back again in the ranks of the militant Anarchists, his spirit unbroken, his soul full of enthusiasm for the ideals of his youth. The artist comrade is now among the well-known illustrators of New York. The suicide candidate left America shortly after his unfortunate attempt to die, and was subsequently arrested and condemned to eight years of hard labor for smuggling Anarchist literature into Germany. He, too, has withstood the terrors of prison life, and has returned to the revolutionary movement, since earning the well deserved reputation of a talented writer in Germany. To avoid indefinite camping in the parks Emma Goldman finally was forced to move into a house on Third Street, occupied exclusively by prostitutes. There, among the outcasts of our good Christian society, she could at least rent a bit of a room, and find rest and work at her sewing machine. The women of the street showed more refinement of feeling and sincere sympathy than the priests of the Church. But human endurance had been exhausted by overmuch suffering and privation. There was a complete physical breakdown, and the renowned agitator was removed to the "Bohemian Republic"--a large tenement house which derived its euphonious appellation from the fact that its occupants were mostly Bohemian Anarchists. Here Emma Goldman found friends ready to aid her. Justus Schwab, one of the finest representatives of the German revolutionary period of that time, and Dr. Solotaroff were indefatigable in the care of the patient. Here, too, she met Edward Brady, the new friendship

THE WORLD OF EMMA GOLDMAN

In 1969, nearly sixty years after it first appeared, Dover Publications published a paperback edition of Emma Goldman's Anarchism and Other Essays. A quarter-century later Dover still sells fifteen hundred copies annually, and its 1970 paperback edition of her autobiography, Living My Life (1931), also remains in print--testimony to the continuing interest in Goldman's life and ideas. With the publication of the microfilm edition of The Emma Goldman Papers, researchers will be able to supplement these volumes and other collections of Goldman's work with facsimiles of her correspondence, government surveillance and legal documents, and other published and unpublished writings on an extraordinary range of issues. The purpose of this essay is to assist users of the microfilm who are unfamiliar with Goldman's historical milieu by alerting them to books--secondary sources identified in the course of the Project's fourteen years of research--that will provide context for the documents in the collection. It is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography; it is confined for the most part to books, excluding, for example, articles in scholarly journals as well as anarchist newspapers and pamphlets. Included, however, are accounts by Goldman and her associates of the movements and conflicts in which they participated that are essential for an appreciation of the flavor of their culture and of the world they attempted to build. Over the years, many of these sources have been reprinted; others have remained out of print for decades (for example, Alexander Berkman's Bolshevik Myth). Wherever possible the fullest publishing history has been provided to aid readers in locating books that, despite occasional reprintings, can still be difficult to find. For more extensive bibliographies, readers should consult Paul Nursey-Bray, Jim Jose, and Robyn Williams, eds., Anarchist Thinkers and Thought: An Annotated Bibliography (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1992); the unannotated compilation by Robert Goehlert and Claire Herczeg, Anarchism: A Bibliography (Monticello, Ill.: Vance Bibliographies, [1982]); and the catalogue of the anarchist collection at the Institut Français d'Histoire Sociale, Paris: Janine Gaillemin, Marie-Aude Sowerwine-Mareschal, and Diana Richet, eds., L'anarchisme: Catalogue de livres et brochures des XIXe et XXe siècles (Paris and Munich: K. G. Saur, 1982). An especially thorough bibliography can be found in David DeLeon, The American as Anarchist: Reflections on Indigenous Radicalism (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978). Of historical interest is one of the earliest bibliographies of anarchism, compiled by the anarchist historian Max Nettlau, a frequent correspondent of Goldman's. See Bibliographie de l'anarchie (Brussels: Bibliotheque des "Temps Nouveaux," 1897; rpt. ed., New York: Burt Franklin, 1968), with a preface by Elisée Reclus. Finally, always valuable are the bibliographies in the books by Paul Avrich (see below). GOLDMAN'S WRITINGS The starting point for anyone interested in Goldman is her thousand-page autobiography, Living My Life, 2 vols. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1931; rpt. ed., Garden City, N.Y.: Garden City Publishing Company, 1934), which covers her life thoroughly through her departure from Soviet Russia in 1921 but devotes comparatively little space to her activities during the 1920s. Three years in the writing, Living My Life did not sell as many copies as Goldman had hoped, a victim of the depression and the high price of $7.50 for the two volumes. Still, Goldman was buoyed by the generally favorable reviews of her work. Friends compared the book to Rousseau's Confessions; reviewers saw her life's story as an antidote to complacency. The central theme of the book is the passionate intensity of Goldman's commitment to her "beautiful ideal" of anarchism and her parallel quest for love and intimacy. When the book appeared, however, some readers and reviewers were shocked by Goldman's candor in discussing her personal life, missing its centrality to her political convictions. Her attempt to reconcile the personal and political, however, found a strong resonance in the revitalized women's movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Living My Life has been reprinted many times. A two-volume paperback edition is still in print (New York: Dover Publications, 1970). Other modern reprints include a two-volume edition, with an introduction by Sheila Rowbotham (London: Pluto Press, 1986); a one-volume unabridged edition, with an introduction by Candace Falk and a remembrance by Meridel Le Sueur (Salt Lake City: Gibbs M. Smith, 1982); a facsimile reprint of the 1931 Knopf edition (New York: Da Capo Press, 1970); and a one-volume abridged edition that ends with Goldman's deportation from the United States in 1919, edited with an afterword and bibliographical essay by Richard and Anna Maria Drinnon (New York: New American Library, 1977). The editors of this edition performed an especially useful service by compiling a new and far more comprehensive index to replace the hopelessly inadequate original. In addition to its serialization in Yiddish in the Forward in 1931 (see reel 52 of The Emma Goldman Papers microfilm), Goldman's autobiography has been published in other languages: for example, in German as Gelebtes Leben, 3 vols., trans. Renate Orywa and Sabine Vetter (Berlin: Karin Kramer Verlag, 1978-1980); in an abridged French edition, Epopée d'une anarchiste: New York 1886-Moscou 1920, trans. Cathy Bernheim and Annette Lévy-Willard (Paris: Hachette, 1979); and in Italian, Vivendo la mia vita, 3 vols., trans. Michele Buzzi (Milan: La Salamandra, 1980-1986). Goldman's monthly magazine, Mother Earth, which she published in New York from March 1906 to August 1917, is an important source for those interested in her ideas and the anarchist movement of the period. Often the day-to-day operation of the magazine was in the hands of others, most notably Max Baginski and for many years Alexander Berkman, freeing Goldman to spread anarchist ideas, build a readership, and raise money for the magazine through nationwide lecture tours. But Mother Earth bore the stamp of its founder, especially in its melding of art and politics. In addition to her essays--many of them revisions of lectures--and articles on different aspects of anarchism, Mother Earth published original poems and short stories; excerpted works by writers such as Tolstoy, Maxim Gorki, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Oscar Wilde and reprinted poems by William Morris and Walt Whitman; reported on labor and civil liberties disputes; kept its readers abreast of developments in the international anarchist and labor movements; and often featured striking graphics on its cover. Mother Earth helped to revitalize the anarchist movement in the United States, acting as a hub for its intellectual life and attracting readers and supporters from beyond the ranks of the movement by its eclectic contents and especially its unflinching defense of free speech. Its pages provided countless local groups with a forum to advertise meetings and lectures and for endless fund-raising appeals. Each issue carried advertisements for books and pamphlets on anarchism and other topics--advertisements that are a valuable resource for researchers trying to recover the political and cultural locus of the movement. Finally, the magazine's offices also served as a publishing house: The Mother Earth Publishing Association published some of the most important anarchist books of the period, including Goldman's Anarchism and Other Essays and Berkman's Prison Memoirs. All twelve volumes have been reprinted in the "Radical Periodicals in the United States, 1890-1960" series (New York: Greenwood Reprint Corporation, 1968). Unaccountably the reprinted volumes appeared under the title, Mother Earth Bulletin, the name of the journal that succeeded Mother Earth after the latter was banned from the mails under a provision of the wartime Espionage Act. Mother Earth Bulletin was published from October 1917 to April 1918, when it met the same fate as its predecessor. After Goldman's imprisonment and the suppression of the Bulletin, Stella Ballantine tried to keep her aunt's voice before the public through a mimeographed newsletter with the wonderfully ironic title, Instead of a Magazine (recalling Benjamin R. Tucker's Instead of a Book). The newsletter, however, lasted just one issue (a copy of it can be found on reel 61 of The Emma Goldman Papers microfilm). Goldman revised many of her early lectures and essays and collected them in Anarchism and Other Essays (New York: Mother Earth Publishing Association, 1910). The book includes "Anarchism: What It Really Stands For," "Patriotism: A Menace to Liberty," and "The Tragedy of Woman's Emancipation," among other essays, as well as a forty-page biographical sketch of Goldman by Hippolyte Havel. A reprint of the third revised edition (1917), with a new introduction by Richard Drinnon, is still in print (New York: Dover Publications, 1969). Other modern reprints have appeared in German as Anarchismus, seine wirkliche Bedeutung, trans. Sabine Wolski and Ulrich Schwalbe (Berlin: Libertad Verlag, 1978); and in Italian as Anarchia, femminismo e attri saggi, trans. Roberto Massari (Milan: La Salamandra, 1976). In addition to political topics, from the early 1900s Goldman wrote and lectured on modern European drama. Her essays on playwrights such as Henrik Ibsen, August Strindberg, Gerhart Hauptmann, George Bernard Shaw, and Anton Chekhov were revised and published as The Social Significance of the Modern Drama (Boston: Richard G. Badger, 1914), which has been reprinted (New York: Applause--Theatre Book Publishers, 1987). Goldman's accounts of her experiences in Soviet Russia and what she saw as the Bolsheviks' betrayal of the revolution were translated into many languages (see reel 49 of The Emma Goldman Papers microfilm). When her book, My Disillusionment in Russia (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1923), appeared, Goldman was dismayed that Doubleday, Page & Company had replaced her title, "My Two Years in Russia," without her knowledge. Even worse, the publisher cut the last twelve chapters of the manuscript, omitting her account of crucial events such as the Kronstadt rebellion and an afterword in which she reflected on the trajectory of the revolution after the Bolsheviks seized power. The publisher attempted to rectify the situation by publishing the omitted chapters as a separate volume: My Further Disillusionment in Russia (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1924). The complete text in one volume, with an introduction by Rebecca West, appeared the following year: My Disillusionment in Russia (London: C. W. Daniel Company, 1925). With the resurgence of interest in Goldman in the 1960s and 1970s, a new edition of the complete text, with Frank Harris's biographical sketch of Goldman from his Contemporary Portraits (see below), was published (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, Apollo Editions, 1970). A useful anthology of Goldman's essays and speeches drawn from the entire span of her career, arranged topically under "Organization of Society," "Social Institutions," "Violence," and "Two Revolutions and a Summary," is Alix Kates Shulman, ed., Red Emma Speaks: Selected Writings and Speeches by Emma Goldman (New York: Vintage Books, 1972), which has been reprinted (New York: Schocken Books, 1982). Two collections of Goldman's letters from her years in exile from the United States have been published. Richard and Anna Maria Drinnon, eds., Nowhere at Home: Letters from Exile of Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman (New York: Schocken Books, 1975), is an outstanding, often moving collection of letters. Arranged thematically--under "Communism and the Intellectuals," "Anarchism and Violence," "Women and Men," and "Living the Revolution"--the letters are distinguished by the candor and passion with which their authors engage issues and by the deep bond of affection between two lifelong comrades. David Porter, ed., Vision on Fire: Emma Goldman on the Spanish Revolution (New Paltz, N.Y.: Commonground Press, 1983), includes letters on all aspects of the anarchist struggle in the Spanish civil war. The historical context is established by extensive introductions and commentaries, and the texts of the letters are thoroughly annotated. BIOGRAPHIES OF GOLDMAN There are now a number of scholarly biographies of Goldman. The earliest, Richard Drinnon's Rebel in Paradise: A Biography of Emma Goldman (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961, 1982), remains indispensable and has been reprinted (Boston: Beacon Press, 1970); and (New York: Harper & Row, 1976). For full documentation of his sources, see "Emma Goldman: A Study in American Radicalism" (Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota, 1957). Two biographies explore the intersection of Goldman's public and private lives. Candace Falk, Love, Anarchy, and Emma Goldman (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984; rev. ed., New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1990), offers a challenging view of the theory and practice of anarchism, and Goldman's relation to it, through the prism of her personal life. (Published in German as Liebe und Anarchie & Emma Goldman: Ein erotischer Briefwechsel; Eine Biographie, trans. Dita Stafski and Helga Woggon [Berlin: Karin Kramer Verlag, 1987].) Alice Wexler, Emma Goldman: An Intimate Life (New York: Pantheon Books, 1984)--reprinted as Emma Goldman in America (Boston: Beacon Press, 1986)--which covers Goldman's career through her deportation in 1919, and Wexler's second volume, Emma Goldman in Exile: From the Russian Revolution to the Spanish Civil War (Boston: Beacon Press, 1989), concentrate especially on the character of Goldman's anarchism. A brief survey of Goldman's life focusing on the American years with little attention to her years in exile is John Chalberg, Emma Goldman: American Individualist (New York: HarperCollins, 1991). Martha Solomon, Emma Goldman (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1987), focuses on Goldman as a writer and rhetorician. Marian J. Morton, Emma Goldman and the American Left: "Nowhere at Home" (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992), leans heavily on secondary works, intending to place Goldman's activities in the context of the broader Left during her lifetime. Fuller coverage of Goldman's work on behalf of the Spanish anarchists during the civil war can be found in a biography by veteran anarchist and chronicler of the movement Jose Peirats. See Emma Goldman: Anarquista de ambos mundos (Madrid: Campo Abierto Ediciones, 1978); reprinted as Emma Goldman: Un mujer en la tormenta del siglo (Barcelona: Editorial Laia, 1983). An issue of the journal Itineraire: Une vie, une pensée (no. 8, 1990), published in Chelles, France, is devoted to Goldman and her circle. Other issues of the same journal have focused on Peter Kropotkin, Rudolf Rocker, and Errico Malatesta. ALEXANDER BERKMAN Anyone interested in Goldman must also consult works by Berkman, her "chum of a lifetime." Their friend and comrade Mollie Steimer described them as "inseparable emotionally and spiritually. Neither of them ever wrote a major article or a book without consulting the other." Berkman's editorial skills were considerable, as evidenced by his work on Mother Earth and in the substantial contribution he made to shaping Living My Life. Berkman was also a writer of grace and power, as his three major works testify. Regrettably, he never wrote an autobiography, though in the early 1930s he sketched an outline for one through 1919. See Drinnon and Drinnon, eds., Nowhere at Home, xxv-xxviii. Writing his first book, Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist (New York: Mother Earth Publishing Association, 1912), introduction by Hutchins Hapgood, finally enabled Berkman to slay the ghosts that had haunted him since his release. It has been reprinted, with a new introduction by Paul Goodman (New York: Schocken Books, 1970); and in another edition with an afterword by Kenneth Rexroth (Pittsburgh: Frontier Press, 1970). An account of his fourteen-year imprisonment for attempting to assassinate Henry Clay Frick, the book is a classic of the genre of prison writing, chronicling the brutality of the prison regime and the evolution of his attitudes toward his fellow prisoners--including a sympathetic discussion of homosexuality--with compelling honesty. The book also appeared in Yiddish: Gefengenen erinerungen fun än anarchist, 2 vols., ed. M. Katz and R. Frumkin (New York: M. E. Fitzgerald, 1920-1921). Berkman loaned Goldman the diary he kept in Russia to help her write My Disillusionment in Russia, though he always believed that her free use of it detracted considerably from the impact of his subsequent account of the two years they spent in Russia, published as The Bolshevik Myth (Diary 1920-1922) (New York: Boni and Liveright, 1925). The publisher rejected the final chapter of his manuscript "as an 'anti-climax' from a literary standpoint," prompting Berkman to publish it separately as The "Anti-Climax": The Concluding Chapter of My Russian Diary, "The Bolshevik Myth" ([Berlin]: n.p., [1925]). The complete work has recently been republished, with a new introduction by Nicolas Walter (London: Pluto Press, 1989). Berkman's earliest essays on Russia were published in three pamphlets--The Russian Tragedy, The Russian Revolution and the Communist Party, and The Kronstadt Rebellion in Berlin in 1922. They have been collected and reissued as The Russian Tragedy (Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Press, 1976), with an introduction by William G. Nowlin, Jr. Commissioned by the Jewish Anarchist Federation of New York to prepare a primer on anarchism that would be accessible to the average reader and help dispel the popular myths surrounding the topic, Berkman found the book excruciatingly difficult to write (see his letters to Goldman in the summer and fall of 1927 on reels 18 and 19 of this collection). Nonetheless, Paul Avrich, the leading historian of anarchism, considers Now and After: The ABC of Communist Anarchism (New York: Vanguard Press/Jewish Anarchist Federation, 1929), "a classic, ranking with Kropotkin's Conquest of Bread as the clearest exposition of communist anarchism in English or any other language." A recent republication, with a new introduction by Avrich and Goldman's preface to the 1937 edition, appeared under the title What Is Communist Anarchism? (New York: Dover Publications, 1972). An abridged edition, ABC of Anarchism, first published in London in 1942 and reprinted many times, is still available (London: Freedom Press, 1971), with an introduction by Peter E. Newell. Following the untimely death of Voltairine de Cleyre in 1912, Berkman edited a collection of her writings: Selected Works of Voltairine de Cleyre (New York: Mother Earth Publishing Association, 1914), with a biographical sketch by Hippolyte Havel. The collection has been reprinted (New York: Revisionist Press, 1972). His relationship with de Cleyre was less conflicted than was Goldman's. He held her in high esteem as a writer and fellow anarchist. A faithful correspondent while Berkman was imprisoned, de Cleyre provided emotional and intellectual support after his release and especially while he was writing Prison Memoirs. Berkman's labor weekly, The Blast, which he edited and published in San Francisco from January 1916 to May 1917 with the assistance of M. Eleanor Fitzgerald, has also been reprinted in the "Radical Periodicals in the United States, 1890-1960" series (New York: Greenwood Reprint Corporation, 1968). Under the auspices of the International Committee for Political Prisoners, Berkman compiled and edited a valuable collection of material documenting the Bolsheviks' proscription of civil liberties and persecution of revolutionary groups and parties in the early years of the Soviet state. Comprising correspondence, testimonies, affidavits, and interviews of political prisoners and exiles, Letters from Russian Prisons (New York: Albert & Charles Boni, 1925), has also been reprinted (Westport, Conn.: Hyperion Press, 1977). A useful selection from Berkman's major works plus letters and articles from The Blast is Gene Fellner, ed., Life of an Anarchist: The Alexander Berkman Reader (New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1992). Berkman will finally receive the attention he deserves when Paul Avrich completes the biography he is currently writing. ANARCHISM The best surveys to date of anarchism are James Joll, The Anarchists, 2d ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980); George Woodcock, Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (Cleveland: World Publishing Company, 1962; rpt. ed., Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1963); and Peter Marshall, Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism (London: HarperCollins, 1992). A useful brief introduction that ranges from Bakunin to Murray Bookchin and social ecology is Richard D. Sonn, Anarchism (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992). For the scope and vitality of anarchist thought, see the selections in the following anthologies: Irving Louis Horowitz, ed., The Anarchists (New York: Dell, 1964); Daniel Guérin, ed., Ni dieu, ni maître: Anthologie historique du mouvement anarchiste (Paris: Editions de Delphes, [1965]); Leonard I. Krimerman and Lewis Perry, eds., Patterns of Anarchy: A Collection of Writings on the Anarchist Tradition (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1966); Marshal S. Shatz, ed., The Essential Works of Anarchism (New York: Bantam Books, 1971; rpt. ed., New York: Quadrangle Books, 1972); and George Woodcock, ed., The Anarchist Reader (Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1977). Goldman wrote at length in her autobiography about the formative influences on her political ideas, from the Russian populists and nihilists of her adolescence--apotheosized for her in the character of Vera in Nikolai Chernyshevsky's novel What Is to Be Done?--to the Haymarket martyrs and her mentor Johann Most. As important an influence as the Russian anarchist theorists Michael Bakunin and Peter Kropotkin were, Goldman could also draw upon a native radical tradition in the United States of communitarianism and resistance to government authority--a tradition that found political expression in the utopian and abolitionist movements before the Civil War and resonated especially in the writings of Henry David Thoreau and Walt Whitman. The execution of the Haymarket anarchists was the catalyst for Goldman's decision to devote her life to their ideal of anarchism. The best account of the affair is Paul Avrich's magisterial The Haymarket Tragedy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984). Still useful is Henry David, The History of the Haymarket Affair: A Study in the American Social-Revolutionary Tradition, 2d ed. (New York: Russell and Russell, 1958). Dave Roediger and Franklin Rosemont, eds., Haymarket Scrapbook (Chicago: Charles H. Kerr Publishing Company, 1986), is an excellent compilation of contemporary accounts of the affair and its aftermath, remembrances, scholarly articles, and illustrations. On the condemned men themselves, see Philip S. Foner, ed., The Autobiographies of the Haymarket Martyrs (New York: Humanities Press, 1969). The diversity of the social and cultural milieu of anarchism in Chicago is demonstrated in Bruce C. Nelson, Beyond the Martyrs: A Social History of Chicago's Anarchists, 1870-1900 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1988). On Johann Most, see Memoiren, Erlebtes, Erforschtes und Erdachtes (New York: Selbstverlag des Verfassers, 1903-1907); Rudolf Rocker, Johann Most: Das Leben eines Rebellen (Berlin: "Der Syndikalist," Fritz Kater, 1924); and Frederic Trautmann, The Voice of Terror: A Biography of Johann Most (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980). For a survey of American anarchist thought from the earliest years of the Republic through the mid-twentieth century, see William O. Reichert, Partisans of Freedom: A Study in American Anarchism (Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1976); Ronald Creagh, Histoire de l'anarchisme aux Etats-Unis d'Amérique: Les origines, 1826-1886 (Grenoble: Editions La Pensée Sauvage, 1981); and Eunice Minette Schuster, Native American Anarchism: A Study of Left-Wing American Individualism, Smith College Studies in History, vol. 17 (Northampton, Mass.: Department of History, Smith College, 1932), which has been reprinted twice (New York: AMS Press, 1970) and (Port Townsend, Wash.: Loompanics Unlimited, 1983). On individualist anarchists, see James J. Martin, Men Against the State: The Expositors of Individualist Anarchism in America, 1827-1908 (DeKalb, Ill.: Adrian Allen Associates, 1953; rev. ed., Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles, 1970); and Michael E. Coughlin, Charles H. Hamilton, and Mark A. Sullivan, eds., Benjamin R. Tucker and the Champions of "Liberty": A Centenary Anthology (St. Paul: Michael E. Coughlin and Mark Sullivan, 1986). David DeLeon advances the bold thesis that, as manifested in different forms of libertarian radicalism characterized by a hostility to centralized power, anarchism represents the most significant radical tradition in American history. See DeLeon, American as Anarchist. The intellectual foundations of communist anarchism were laid in the nineteenth century by the Russians Michael Bakunin and Peter Kropotkin. Multivolume collections of Bakunin's works have been published in French and German, and most of his major works are available in English translation. Useful anthologies include Sam Dolgoff, ed., Bakunin on Anarchy: Selected Works by the Activist-Founder of World Anarchism (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972), which was reprinted as Bakunin on Anarchism (Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1980); and G. P. Maximoff, The Political Philosophy of Bakunin: Scientific Anarchism (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1953; rpt. ed., New York: Free Press, 1964), with an introduction by Rudolf Rocker and biographical sketch by Max Nettlau. Kropotkin's major works--An Appeal to the Young, Conquest of Bread, Fields, Factories and Workshops, Memoirs of a Revolutionist, and Mutual Aid--have been reprinted numerous times. The most useful anthologies of Kropotkin's writings are Emile Capouya and Keitha Tompkins, eds., The Essential Kropotkin (New York: Liveright, 1975); Martin A. Miller, ed., Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1970); and Roger Baldwin, ed., Kropotkin's Revolutionary Pamphlets: A Collection of Writings (New York: Vanguard Press, 1927; rpt. ed., New York: Dover Publications, 1970). The best biographies of the two are E. H. Carr, Michael Bakunin (London: Macmillan, 1937; rpt. ed., New York: Vintage Books, 1961); Martin A. Miller, ropotkin (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976); and George Woodcock and Ivan Avakumovi , The Anarchist Prince: A Biography of Peter Kropotkin (London: T. V. Boardman, 1950; rpt. ed., New York: Schocken Books, 1971). Excellent brief introductions to Bakunin and Kropotkin can be found in the chapters devoted to them in Paul Avrich, Anarchist Portraits (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988). On the dispute in the First International between Marx and Bakunin, see Paul Thomas, Karl Marx and the Anarchists (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980); and for the reverberations of that dispute within Russian anarchism as it grappled with Bolshevism, see Anthony D'Agostino, Marxism and the Russian Anarchists (San Francisco: Germinal Press, 1977). THE AMERICAN YEARS The period of Goldman's life in the United States when she was at the peak of her influence is well documented in autobiographies and reminiscences by other participants in the radical, labor, and literary movements of the time. Readers should bear in mind, however, that after World War I the radicals who once had cooperated took different political paths. The accounts they wrote of earlier years sometimes reflect a changed political orientation; others took the opportunity to settle old scores. With reference to Goldman, then, the following books should be consulted with care. William D. Haywood, Bill Haywood's Book: The Autobiography of William D. Haywood (New York: International Publishers, 1929), reprinted many times; and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, I Speak My Own Piece: Autobiography of "The Rebel Girl" (New York: Masses & Mainstream, 1955); rev. ed., The Rebel Girl: An Autobiography; My First Life (1906-1926) (New York: International Publishers, 1973), cover the lives of two leaders of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) who occasionally worked closely with Goldman. Mary Heaton Vorse, A Footnote to Folly: Reminiscences of Mary Heaton Vorse (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1935); and Hutchins Hapgood, A Victorian in the Modern World (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1939), are excellent autobiographies by two author/journalists whose sympathies were with the radicals. Both Margaret Sanger, My Fight for Birth Control (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1931), and Margaret Sanger: An Autobiography (New York: W. W. Norton, 1938; rpt. ed., New York: Dover Publications, 1971) slight Goldman's role in publicizing birth control ideas and her influence on Sanger. Max Eastman, Enjoyment of Living (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1948); and Floyd Dell, Homecoming: An Autobiography (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1933; rpt. ed., Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1969), include reflections on their years on the Masses before World War I. Mabel Dodge Luhan, Intimate Memories. By S.Cole

The radical movement in the United States of the World War I era has attracted some outstanding scholarship. For the anarchists, see Margaret S. Marsh, Anarchist Women, 1870-1920 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981); the relevant chapters in Avrich, Anarchist Portraits; Paul Avrich, An American Anarchist: The Life of Voltairine de Cleyre (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978); Paul Avrich, The Modern School Movement: Anarchism and Education in the United States (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980); Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991); the essays in Antonio Donno, ed., America anarchica (1850-1930) (Manduria, Italy: Piero Lacaita Editore, 1990); Roger A. Bruns, The Damndest Radical: The Life and World of Ben Reitman (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987); and Dorothy Gallagher, All the Right Enemies: The Life and Murder of Carlo Tresca (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1988; rpt. ed., New York: Penguin Books, 1989). For the Jewish anarchist movement from a participant's perspective, see the account in Yiddish by Joseph Cohen, Di yidish-anarkhistishe bavegung in Amerike (Philadelphia: Radical Library Branch 273, Workmen's Circle, 1945). The best overview of the years immediately preceding World War I is still Henry F. May, The End of American Innocence: A Study of the First Years of Our Time, 1912-1917 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1959; rpt. ed., Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1964). On the cultural and political radicalism of Greenwich Village before the war, see Arthur Frank Wertheim, The New York Little Renaissance: Iconoclasm, Modernism, and Nationalism in American Culture, 1908-1917 (New York: New York University Press, 1976); Leslie Fishbein, Rebels in Bohemia: The Radicals of "The Masses," 1911-1917 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982); and Rebecca Zurier, Art for "The Masses": A Radical Magazine and Its Graphics, 1911-1917 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988), which is an excellent introduction to this literary contemporary of Mother Earth and covers much more ground than its title and subtitle suggest. Two important books on the intersection of art and politics in the period are Steve Golin, The Fragile Bridge: Paterson Silk Strike, 1913 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988); and Martin Green, New York 1913: The Armory Show and the Paterson Strike Pageant (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988; rpt. ed., New York: Collier Books, 1989). For the various strands of the women's movement in this period, see, for example, Nancy Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987); Mari Jo Buhle, Women and American Socialism, 1870-1920 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981); Meredith Tax, The Rising of the Women: Feminist Solidarity and Class Conflict, 1880-1917 (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1980); Rosalyn Fraad Baxandall, Words on Fire: The Life and Writing of Elizabeth Gurley Flynn (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1987); Judith Schwarz, Radical Feminists of Heterodoxy: Greenwich Village, 1912-1940 (Lebanon, N.H.: New Victoria Publishers, 1982); Marsh, Anarchist Women; and Avrich, An American Anarchist. On the birth control movement, see Linda Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right: A Social History of Birth Control in America (New York: Grossman, 1976; rpt. ed., New York: Penguin Books, 1977); James Reed, From Private Vice to Public Virtue: The Birth Control Movement and American Society since 1830 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978); and Ellen Chesler, Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992). Goldman's fight for birth control was part of a broader battle she waged for economic self-determination and for women's right to sexual freedom. See Bonnie Haaland, Emma Goldman: Sexuality and the Impurity of the State (Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1993). Goldman found support for her ideas in the work of European feminists such as Ellen Key. See Ellen Key, Love and Marriage, trans. Arthur G. Chater, introduction by Havelock Ellis (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1911; rpt. ed., New York: Source Book Press, 1970); The Woman Movement, trans. Mamah Bouton Borthwick, introduction by Havelock Ellis (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1912; rpt. ed., Westport, Conn.: Hyperion Press, 1976); and The Renaissance of Motherhood, trans. Anna E. B. Fries (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1914; rpt. ed., New York: Source Book Press, 1970). For the historical precursors of Goldman's work, see Hal D. Sears, The Sex Radicals: Free Love in High Victorian America (Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas, 1977); and Sheila Rowbotham and Jeffrey Weeks, Socialism and the New Life: The Personal and Sexual Politics of Edward Carpenter and Havelock Ellis (London: Pluto Press, 1977). The work of Carpenter and Ellis also informed Goldman's lectures on homosexuality. On the IWW, see Melvyn Dubofsky, We Shall Be All: A History of the Industrial Workers of the World (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969; 2d ed., Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988); and Philip S. Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States, vol. 4: The Industrial Workers of the World, 1905-1917 (New York: International Publishers, 1965). For the anarcho-syndicalist bent of the IWW and its expression in the art and culture of the Wobblies, see Salvatore Salerno, Red November, Black November: Culture and Community in the Industrial Workers of the World (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989). See also Peter Carlson, Roughneck: The Life and Times of Big Bill Haywood (New York: W. W. Norton, 1983); and Joseph R. Conlin, Big Bill Haywood and the Radical Union Movement (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1969). The spirit of the Wobblies is wonderfully evoked in Joyce L. Kornbluh, Rebel Voices: An I.W.W. Anthology (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1964; rev. ed., Chicago: Charles H. Kerr Publishing Company, 1988). Goldman and Berkman opposed U.S. entry into World War I and were convicted in 1917 of conspiring to obstruct the draft, one of numerous cases prosecuted under a battery of wartime legislation designed to crack down on dissent. Fueled by the success of the Bolsheviks in Russia, the atmosphere of intolerance did not abate after the war's end, and ad hoc groups and emergency committees formed during the war to protect civil liberties came together in 1920 to found the American Civil Liberties Union. On this period, see Paul L. Murphy, World War I and the Origin of Civil Liberties in the United States (New York: W. W. Norton, 1979); William Preston, Jr., Aliens and Dissenters: Federal Suppression of Radicals, 1903-1933 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963); Richard Polenberg, Fighting Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court, and Free Speech (New York: Viking, 1987; rpt. ed., New York: Penguin Books, 1989); and Peggy Lamson, Roger Baldwin, Founder of the American Civil Liberties Union: A Portrait (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976). After Goldman and Berkman were released from prison in 1919, J. Edgar Hoover took charge of the deportation case against them. On Hoover's career, see Richard Gid Powers, Secrecy and Power: The Life of J. Edgar Hoover (New York: Free Press, 1987); and Athan G. Theoharis and John Stuart Cox, The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988). RUSSIA Aside from Goldman's and Berkman's own accounts (cited above), three books by Paul Avrich are directly relevant to their experience in Russia. The Russian Anarchists (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967; rpt. ed., New York: W. W. Norton, 1978), which includes an excellent bibliography, traces the intellectual origins of Russian anarchism in the late nineteenth century through the 1905 revolution to the anarchists' role in 1917 and their subsequent suppression by the Bolsheviks. The Anarchists in the Russian Revolution (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1973), a collection of documents, includes writings by many of Goldman's comrades who later were part of the community of Russian anarchist exiles in Germany and France. Kronstadt, 1921 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970) is the fullest account of the rebellion by sailors in the Gulf of Finland against the authoritarian and centralizing tendencies of the Bolsheviks. For accounts of the most sustained anarchist resistance to both Bolshevik power and counterrevolutionary forces during the revolutionary period, see Michael Palij, The Anarchism of Nestor Makhno, 1918-1921: An Aspect of the Ukrainian Revolution (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1976); and Michael Malet, Nestor Makhno in the Russian Civil War (London: Macmillan/London School of Economics and Political Science, 1982). An important work in Russian by Peter Arshinov, a participant in the events in the Ukraine, first appeared in Berlin in 1923; an English translation was published as History of the Makhnovist Movement (1918-1921), preface by Voline [V. M. Eikhenbaum], trans. Lorraine and Fredy Perlman (Detroit: Black & Red; Chicago: Solidarity, 1974). Two accounts by anarchist participants in the revolutionary period are G. P. Maximoff, The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia (Data and Documents) (Chicago: Chicago Section of the Alexander Berkman Fund, 1940), reprinted in an abridged edition as The Guillotine at Work, vol. 1: The Leninist Counter-Revolution (Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Press, 1979); and Voline [V. M. Eikhenbaum], La révolution inconnue, 1917-1921: Documentation inédite sur la Révolution russe (Paris: Amis de Voline, 1947; rpt. ed., Paris: Editions Pierre Belfond, 1969), parts of which were published in English in the mid-1950s, with a biographical introduction by Rudolf Rocker, by Freedom Press (London) and the Libertarian Book Club (New York). The complete work was published as The Unknown Revolution, 1917-1921, trans. Holley Cantine (New York: Free Life Editions, 1974). Angelica Balabanoff, first secretary of the Third International and an intimate of Lenin, befriended Goldman and Berkman during their years in Russia and remained close to them after she broke with the Soviet leadership. See her memoirs, My Life as a Rebel (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1938). THE EXILE YEARS Goldman's years in Europe and Canada between her departure from Russia and the beginning of the Spanish civil war were among the most dispiriting of her life, culminating in the death of Berkman in June 1936. During that period she relied on correspondence to stay in touch with family and friends in the United States while she renewed contacts with European associates and exiled Russian comrades and developed new friendships where her work took her. Friends and family alike among Goldman's American correspondents were connected with the arts, especially the theater. Her favorite niece, Stella, was married to Teddy Ballantine, an actor and occasional director with the Provincetown Players. M. Eleanor Fitzgerald--Goldman's beloved "Fitzi," who occupied many roles at Mother Earth--was the moving force behind the scenes of the Provincetown Playhouse during the 1920s after it moved to New York City. See Robert Karoly Sarlos, Jig Cook and the Provincetown Players: Theatre in Ferment (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1982); and Helen Deutsch and Stella Hanau, The Provincetown: A Story of the Theatre (1931; New York: Russell & Russell, 1972). Goldman's nephew (Stella's brother) Saxe Commins had a distinguished career as an editor with Liveright and Random House. His most important association was with playwright Eugene O'Neill, much of whose early work was first performed by the Provincetown Players. See Dorothy Commins, What Is an Editor? Saxe Commins at Work (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978); and Dorothy Commins, ed., "Love and Admiration and Respect": The O'Neill-Commins Correspondence (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1986). Max Nettlau and Rudolf Rocker, two of the most prolific writers in the anarchist movement, became regular correspondents of Goldman during her years in exile. Nettlau devoted his life to chronicling the movement--Rocker described him as the "Herodotus of anarchy"--amassing a huge archive of anarchist materials. Rocker combined activism--with the Jews of London's East End before World War I, in Germany for the International Working Men's Association (IWMA) during the 1920s--with writing and lecturing. Nettlau's and Rocker's works have been reprinted numerous times in many languages. See especially Rudolf Rocker, Nationalism and Culture, trans. Ray E. Chase (New York: Covici, Friede, 1937); and Anarcho-Syndicalism (London: Secker and Warburg, 1938; rpt. ed., London: Pluto Press, 1989). Rocker's three-volume autobiography appeared in Yiddish in 1952; an English translation of the volume covering his years in England was published as The London Years, trans. Joseph Leftwich (London: Robert Anscombe, 1956). See also Peter Wienand, Der "geborene" Rebell: Rudolf Rocker--Leben und Werk (Berlin: Karin Kramer Verlag, 1981). Among Nettlau's numerous books were biographies of Bakunin and Errico Malatesta and a study of the First International in Spain, but little of his work has been translated into English. An exception is Anarchy Through the Times, trans. Scott Johnson (1935; New York: Gordon Press, 1979). His multivolume history of anarchism is currently being published for the International Institute of Social History: Geschichte der Anarchie, 5 vols. (Vaduz, Liechtenstein: Topos Verlag, 1981- ). Among Goldman's closest comrades were Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin, who also left Soviet Russia after conditions there became intolerable for anarchists. On Steimer, see Marsh, Anarchist Women, Avrich, Anarchist Portraits; Polenberg, Fighting Faiths; and the pamphlet, Sentenced to Twenty Years Prison (New York: Political Prisoners Defense & Relief Committee, 1919). See also the memorial volume edited by Abe Bluestein, Fighters for Anarchism: Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin ([New York]: Libertarian Publications Group, 1983). Goldman's experiences in Britain were especially disheartening. She never warmed to the British character, and her message in the 1920s about the Bolsheviks' betrayal of the Russian revolution drew less than enthusiastic responses from her audiences. Only her lectures on drama brought her any satisfaction. Though her attempt to build support for the Spanish anarchists during the civil war met with more success, she never had the same sense of belonging among her British comrades that she had felt in America. Her efforts to reach British workers were for the most part unavailing, and she gravitated instead toward those who were more appreciative of her international reputation, especially writers and intellectuals. On British anarchism, see John Quail, The Slow Burning Fuse: The Lost History of the British Anarchists (London: Paladin, 1978); Hermia Oliver, The International Anarchist Movement in Late Victorian London (London: Croom Helm, 1983); Rocker, London Years; and William J. Fishman, East End Jewish Radicals, 1875-1914 (London: Gerald Duckworth, 1974), published in the United States as Jewish Radicals: From Czarist Stetl to London Ghetto (New York: Pantheon Books, 1975). Albert Meltzer, The Anarchists in London, 1935-1955 (Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Press, 1976), includes some background on the efforts to raise money and public support for the anarchist cause in Spain in the 1930s, as well as highly opinionated observations on British anarchists. Among Goldman's closest allies in the cause of the Spanish anarchists were art and literary critic Sir Herbert Read; novelist Ethel Mannin (see below); and Fenner Brockway, leader of the Independent Labour Party. See Herbert Read, Anarchy and Order: Essays in Politics (London: Faber & Faber, 1954); and Fenner Brockway, Inside the Left: Thirty Years of Platform, Press, Prison and Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1942). Goldman had only intermittent contact with the celebrated American expatriates of the 1920s in France, though for a time she numbered among her friends Peter Neagoe, Laurence Vail, Kay Boyle, and others associated with the literary magazine, transition. Heiress and patron of the arts Peggy Guggenheim helped Goldman purchase her cottage, "Bon Esprit," in St. Tropez and lived close by at Pramousquier. Goldman wrote most of her memoirs at "Bon Esprit," where for a year Emily Holmes Coleman, a young American writer, served as her secretary. "Demi," as Coleman was affectionately known, and Goldman became devoted to one another. See Robert McAlmon and Kay Boyle, Being Geniuses Together, 1920-1930 (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1984); and Jacqueline Bograd Weld, Peggy, the Wayward Guggenheim (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1986). On Emily Holmes Coleman, see her novel, The Shutter of Snow (New York: Viking, 1930); and the entry in Karen Lane Rood, ed., Dictionary of Literary Biography, vol. 4: American Writers in Paris, 1920-1939 (Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1980). Goldman also formed a strong friendship with writer and editor Frank Harris and his wife Nellie. See Harris's sketch of Goldman in his Contemporary Portraits, fourth series (New York: Brentano's, 1923). The influence of Harris's notorious autobiography, originally published privately in five volumes, can be detected in Goldman's Living My Life. See Frank Harris, My Life and Loves, ed. John F. Gallagher (New York: Grove Press, 1963). Although her connections with the French anarchist movement dated from the 1890s--evidenced by her correspondence with Augustin Hamon, editor of L'Humanité Nouvelle--Goldman never played an active role during her residence in France, largely one suspects for fear of expulsion. Nonetheless, she had contacts with the anarchists, for example, May Picqueray, who for a time also lived in St. Tropez. See May Picqueray, May le réfractaire ([Paris]: Atelier Marcel Jullian, 1979). Among Goldman's closest friends in England were Paul and Eslanda Robeson. Later in the 1930s her implacable hostility toward the Communists created an unbridgeable gulf between them as Robeson drew closer to the Party. On Robeson, see Martin Bauml Duberman, Paul Robeson (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988). Visits from old friends and associates from America always fortified Goldman, but served at the same time as a painful reminder of how much she missed her life there. Still, she was heartened that the movement retained some vitality and was glad to encourage it from afar through correspondence. Among her correspondents was anarchist and ILGWU vice-president Rose Pesotta. See Pesotta's memoir Bread upon the Waters, ed. John Nicholas Beffel (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1944), which has been reprinted with a new introduction by Ann Schofield (Ithaca, N.Y.: ILR Press, 1987); and Elaine Leeder, The Gentle General: Rose Pesotta, Anarchist and Labor Organizer (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993). Goldman's influence and bonds of friendship encompassed an extraordinary range of people. She corresponded with Ba Jin (Pa Chin), a young Chinese student who was deeply influenced by anarchism. Ba Jin (the nom de plume of Li Fei-kan) later translated Kropotkin and other Western anarchists into Chinese. But it was Goldman, whom he described as his "spiritual mother," who had the greatest influence on both his fiction and political ideas. He recalled in the preface to his collection of short stories, The General (1934), which he dedicated to Goldman, that he first encountered her essays in 1919 when he was just fifteen years old. Later the experience of reading her autobiography reinvigorated him, and he modeled Hui, the heroine of two of his fictional works, on Goldman. See Olga Lang, Pa Chin and His Writings: Chinese Youth between the Wars (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967). In Russia and Germany Goldman renewed her friendship with American novelist and journalist Agnes Smedley, for whom Goldman's career had been a model of courage. By the late 1920s, however, Smedley believed that the Communists offered the best hope to oppressed peoples, especially in China, and chose to end the friendship. On the Goldman-Smedley friendship, see Janice R. MacKinnon and Stephen R. MacKinnon, Agnes Smedley: The Life and Times of an American Radical (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988). Goldman admired and was a regular correspondent of Danish novelist Karin Michaelis, who explored in her fiction many of the themes of women's sexuality that interested Goldman. See especially her novel, The Dangerous Age: Letters & Fragments from a Woman's Diary, trans. Marcel Prévost (London: John Lane, 1912). Another intense friendship that rested mostly on correspondence was with American novelist Evelyn Scott. On Scott, see D. A. Callard, Pretty Good for a Woman: The Enigmas of Evelyn Scott (London: Jonathan Cape, 1985). SPAIN The historical literature on the Spanish civil war is enormous. The most thorough general history of the conflict is Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, 3d ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1977). Burnett Bolloten's The Spanish Civil War: Revolution and Counterrevolution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991) is an enormously detailed political history of Republican Spain in the civil war period that treats the contributions of the anarchists and anarcho-syndicalists more seriously than most standard histories. See also Ronald Fraser's evocative Blood of Spain: An Oral History of the Spanish Civil War (New York: Pantheon Books, 1979). Spain was the only European country where Bakunin's disciples gained a strong foothold, and anarchism attracted followers in rural areas like Andalusia as well as cities like Barcelona and Valencia. Two important studies of anarchism in a rural context, both of which refute an earlier millenarian interpretation of anarchism, are Temma Kaplan, Anarchists of Andalusia, 1868-1903 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977); and Jerome Mintz, The Anarchists of Casas Viejas (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982). On the anarchists and the civil war, see Gerald Brenan, The Spanish Labyrinth: An Account of the Social and Political Background of the Civil War, 2d ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1950), reprinted many times; Murray Bookchin, The Spanish Anarchists: The Heroic Years, 1868-1936 (New York: Free Life Editions, 1977); John Brademas, "Revolution and Social Revolution: A Contribution to the History of the Anarcho-Syndicalist Movement in Spain, 1930-1937" (D.Phil. thesis, Oxford University, 1953), which has been published only in a revised Spanish edition: Anarcosindicalismo y revolución en España (1930-1937), trans. Joaquin Romero Maura (Barcelona: Editorial Ariel, 1974); and Sam Dolgoff, ed., The Anarchist Collectives: Workers' Self-Management in the Spanish Revolution, 1936-1939 (Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1990). Among accounts of the anarchist revolution and the war in Spain written by participants or sympathizers, see H.-E. Kaminski, Ceux de Barcelona (Paris: Les Editions Denoël, 1937), which describes a 1936 tour Kaminski made with Goldman; the reports by Augustin Souchy, IWMA veteran and director of the CNT's foreign information office in Barcelona, who also accompanied Goldman on some of her visits to anarchist-controlled areas, in Entre los campesinos de Aragón: El comunismo libertario en las comarcas liberadas (Barcelona: Ediciones Tierra y Libertad, 1937), available in English as With the Peasants of Aragon: Libertarian Communism in the Liberated Areas, trans. Abe Bluestein (Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Press, 1982), and Beware! Anarchist! A Life for Freedom: An Autobiography, trans. Theo Waldinger, ed. Sam Dolgoff and Richard Ellington (Chicago: Charles H. Kerr Publishing Company, 1992); two books by Diego Abad de Santillan, an important figure in the CNT-FAI in Catalonia, El anarquismo y la revolucion en España: Escritos, 1930-38, ed. Antonio Elorza (Madrid: Editorial Ayuso, 1976), and Por qué perdimos la guerra: Una contribución a la historia de la tragedia española (1940; Madrid: G. del Toro, 1975); José Peirats, La C.N.T. en la revolución española (Buenos Aires: Ediciones C.N.T., 1955), and Los anarquistas en la guerra civil española (Madrid: Ediciones Júcar, 1976); Sara Berenguer, Entre el sol y la tormenta: Treinta y dos meses de guerra (1936-1939) (Barcelona: Seuba Ediciones, 1988); Albert Meltzer, ed., A New World in Our Hearts: The Faces of Spanish Anarchism (Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Press, 1978); and Juan Gómez Casas, Anarchist Organisation: The History of the F.A.I., trans. Abe Bluestein (Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1986). A classic account of the period is George Orwell, Homage to Catalonia (London: Secker and Warburg, 1938), reprinted many times. Goldman had close relations with many anarchist women during the Spanish civil war, especially those associated with the journal Mujeres Libres, which has begun to attract the attention of scholars. See, for example, Martha A. Ackelsberg, Free Women of Spain: Anarchism and the Struggle for the Emancipation of Women (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991); and Mary Nash, ed., "Mujeres Libres": España, 1936-1939 (Barcelona: Tusquets, 1975). See also Lola Iturbe, La mujer en la lucha social y en la guerra civil de España (Mexico City: Editores Mexicanos Unidos, 1974). LITERARY INTERPRETATIONS OF GOLDMAN Among the fictional representations of Goldman's life, three stand out. Ethel Mannin, the British novelist and Independent Labour Party member, worked closely with Goldman in London on behalf of the CNT-FAI during the Spanish civil war. Her Red Rose: A Novel Based on the Life of Emma Goldman ('Red Emma') (London: Jarrolds, [1941]) is a shrewd portrait of its subject, especially the tensions between Goldman and Alexander Berkman's longtime companion, Emmy Eckstein. Goldman's life was so full of drama that inevitably it attracted the attention of playwrights and writers of screenplays. Two outstanding American historians have written plays based on her life. See Howard Zinn's Emma (first produced in 1976), in Playbook (Boston: South End Press, 1986); and Martin Duberman, Mother Earth: An Epic Drama of Emma Goldman's Life (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991), a revised version of a script commissioned two decades earlier by the New York PBS affiliate but never produced. See also Carol Bolt's Red Emma (first produced in 1974) in Playwrights in Profile: Carol Bolt (Toronto: Playwrights Co-op, 1976). Bolt's play was filmed by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and broadcast in January 1976. Goldman was the inspiration also for an off-stage character in a play by Eugene O'Neill, whose talent she had recognized early in his career. See Winifred L. Frazer, E.G. and E.G.O.: Emma Goldman and "The Iceman Cometh" (Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1974). DOCUMENTARY FILMS Two documentaries by Steve Fischler and Joel Sucher are relevant and worth viewing. Free Voice of Labor: The Jewish Anarchists (1980) focuses on the lives and ideas of the Jewish anarchists associated with the Yiddish-language newspaper, Freie Arbeiter Stimme (1890-1977). Participants recall labor struggles, especially in the needle trades, the repression of radicals during the post-World War I "Red scare," and the cooperative ventures they undertook in such areas as housing and free schools. The film includes interviews with the anarchists, rare newsreel and feature film footage, still photographs, Yiddish "songs of struggle," and music from the Yiddish theater. Anarchism in America (1982) weaves together archival footage--including a newsreel clip of Goldman on her return to the United States for a lecture tour in 1934--and interviews with participants to tell the history of anarchism in twentieth-century America. Among those interviewed is Mollie Steimer, one of Goldman's closest friends and comrades. Both films are available on video and distributed by the Cinema Guild, New York, N.Y. For an understanding of what was at stake for Spanish anarchist women during the civil war, see Lisa Berger and Carol Mazer's ... de toda la vida (... all our lives) (1986). In addition to archival footage and stills, this Spanish-language film (with English subtitles) features extended interviews with women who were rank-and-file CNT members in their youth as well as with prominent anarchists such as Federica Montseny and Lola Iturbe. They spiritedly discuss their paths to anarchism, their work during the civil war, and the role of Mujeres Libres. The film is available on video, also distributed by Cinema Guild. By Stephan Cole

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